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COVID-19: 14 NGOs urge China, Iran and Russia to release all religious prisoners

HRWF (10.12.2020) – Fourteen human rights NGOs call upon the authorities of China, Iran and Russia to release religious prisoners under threat of being infected by COVID-19. These are the three countries that have the highest number of believers of all faiths behind bars, according to Human Rights Without Frontiers’ (HRWF) database of FoRB prisoners which documents thousands of individual cases.

 

In China, 1-2 million Uyghur Muslims and half a million Tibetan Buddhists are at risk of contracting COVID-19 in so-called ‘re-education camps.’ Furthermore, thousands of peaceful Christians of all faiths, but mainly of The Church of Almighty God, and thousands of Falun Gong practitioners have been languishing in detention for years.

 

In Iran, over 60 Baha’is, a dozen Protestants and a number of Sufis have been sentenced to long prison terms for the mere exercise of their right to religious freedom.

 

In Russia, about 50 Jehovah’s Witnesses have been in detention since this movement was banned for alleged extremism in 2018. Over 400 Jehovah’s Witnesses are currently facing criminal charges. Muslims from two peaceful groups, Said Nursi and Tabligh Jamaat, have also been systematically imprisoned for many years.

 

More about the imprisonment of believers of all faiths in 14 countries can be found in HRWF’s latest annual report: “In Prison for Their Faith 2020”.

 

For more information or to schedule an interview, please contact Willy Fautré

Phone: + 32 478 202069

Email:  international.secretariat.brussels@hrwf.net or w.fautre@hrwf.net

Website: http://www.hrwf.eu

 

Organizations supporting the call of Human Rights Without Frontiers Int’l

 

AFN – All Faiths Network (UK) http://www.allfaithsnetwork.org

 

CAP-LC – Coordination des Associations et des Particuliers pour la Liberté de Conscience (France) http://www.coordiap.com/

 

CESNUR – Center for Studies on New Religions (Italy) https://www.cesnur.org

 

EIFRF – European Inter-Religious Forum for Religious Freedom (Belgium) https://www.eifrf-articles.org

 

FOB – European Federation for Freedom of Belief (Italy) https://freedomofbelief.net

FORB.ro – FORB Romania (Romania) https://forb.ro  (English) –https://forbromania.com  (Romanian)

FOREF – Forum for Religious Freedom Europe (Austria) https://foref-europe.org

 

FVG – Faculty for Comparative Study of Religions and Humanism (Belgium) http://antwerpfvg.org

 

IOPHR – International Organisation to Preserve Human Rights (UK) https://preservehumanrights.org/

 

LIREC – Center for Studies on Freedom of Belief, Religion and Conscience (Italy) https://lirec.net

 

Noodt Foundation – Gerard Noodt Foundation for Freedom of Religion or Belief (The Netherlands) http://noodt.org/

 

ORLIR – International Observatory of Religious Liberty of Refugees (Lithuania) https://www.orlir.org

 

PoC – Prisoners of Conscience Appeal Fund (UK) https://www.prisonersofconscience.org/





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WORLD: ‘In Prison for Their Faith 2020’, a new report mapping prisoners worldwide from 13 religious groups

 

Uyghur Muslims, Tibetan Buddhists, The Church of Almighty God Members and Falun Gong Practitioners are by far the most numerous believers behind bars for the practice of their faith, all imprisoned solely by China, according to the latest report by Human Rights Without Frontiers (HRWF). 

 

HRWF (28.09.2020) – With 1-2 million Uyghur Muslims and half a million Tibetan Buddhists (*) in so-called ‘re-education camps’, thousands of members of The Church of Almighty God and thousands of Falun Gong practitioners in detention for years, China is the worst violator of religious freedom in the world. These groups comprise of the majority of individuals in prison worldwide for the legitimate exercise of their religious freedom, according to HRWF’s latest report titled “In Prison for Their Faith 2020” (213 pages) released online and in print on 28 September.

 

Uyghur Muslims and Tibetan Buddhists have been massively incarcerated without committing any crimes and without any official charges. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) claims they are detained  for the purpose of being ‘reeducated’, and pushes the state-sanctioned Marxist-Leninist ideology with the obvious objective to supersede Islam.

 

Thousands of members of The Church of Almighty God, which is the most rapidly expanding new religious movement in China, as well as Falun Gong practitioners have been arrested, tortured and incarcerated. Most of their sentences are between three and seven years, but some are serving 10 years or more.

 

Among Christians of all faiths, Protestants were the most numerous in prison, mainly for being denied registration and the ensuing right to operate, such as in Eritrea, Vietnam and China; for being accused of blasphemy, such as in Pakistan; or for converting Muslims, such as in Iran.

 

Besides Uyghur Sunni Muslims in China, all other Muslim prisoners (Sunnis, Tabligh Jamaat, Said Nursi followers, Sufis and Shias) were sentenced to heavy terms despite being in Muslim-majority countries such as Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

 

More than 50 Jehovah’s Witnesses were indefinitely detained in atrocious conditions in Eritrea for being conscientious objectors to military service, some since 1994, or for the peaceful exercise of their religious freedom. In Russia, the group was banned in April 2017 on charges of extremism and over 30 individuals were sentenced to heavy prison terms for exercising their freedom of worship and assembly, even in private. In Singapore and Turkmenistan, they were incarcerated as conscientious objectors.

 

For years, Baha’is have been systematically arrested and imprisoned in Iran. The charges against them are typically: forming an illegal cult, acting against national security, espionage, propaganda against the regime, posing  a  threat  to the  regime  by  sharing  Baha’i  ideas  with  Israel, plotting  to overthrow the regime, membership  in  an  anti-Islamic group, membership  in  illegal  groups  and  assemblies, and jeopardising the security of the country to further the aims of the Baha’is and international organisations.

 

An unknown number of Tibetan Buddhists were arrested for the mere practice of their religion in China, while nearly 30 of An Dan Dai Dao and Hoa Hao Buddhists were serving long periods of detention in Vietnam.

 

HRWF’s report “In Prison for Their Faith 2020” also covers Ahmadis in Pakistan. All of them at the time of writing this report have been victims of Pakistan’s blasphemy laws, which are used and abused to serve as an outlet for pervasive anti-Ahmadi hostility as well as to settle private disputes.

 

The report “In Prison for Their Faith 2020” has identified a number of religious groups whose members or followers have purposefully been put in prison either for their religious identity or for the legitimate exercise of religious freedom which includes: the freedom to have or not have a religion, to change or retain one’s religion or beliefs; the freedom of expression on religious issues; the freedom of association; the freedom of worship or assembly; and conscientious objection to military service.

 

Each section is devoted to a specific religion or religious group and is structured as follows: an introduction about the religious denomination, the teachings, and country-specific data such as the reasons for the persecution, statistics about the number or prisoners, the articles of the penal codes used and misused for sentencing, advocacy developed by the EU and the US institutions, individual case studies and concluding thoughts looking to the future.

 

The report is based on HRWF’s Database of FoRB Prisoners which has documented over 6,000 individual cases of prisoners and is regularly updated. These prisoners are detained in 20 countries and belong to 18 different religious groups: https://hrwf.eu/prisoners-database/.

 

Additionally, research from HRWF’s vast online library of news covering over 50 countries for the period 2018-2020* was used to inform this report.

Click here to read the report online.

 

For further information, please contact:

Email:  international.secretariat.brussels@hrwf.net or w.fautre@hrwf.net

Website: http://www.hrwf.eu

 

(*) The widespread detention of Tibetan Buddhists only emerged quite recently on the radar of the international community. As such, the magnitude of this issue is not fully reflected in this report but will be in a subsequent specific report. 

(*) Human Rights Without Frontiers Int’l has been monitoring freedom of religion or belief as a non-religious organization since 1989. See its news database online at http://hrwf.eu/newsletters/forb/ . Requests about 2016-2017 can be addressed to the contact information above.





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Uzbekistan must stay on the path of religious freedom reform

Tashkent has made progress on the path toward greater religious freedom but must remain vigilant to protect the gains it has made and continue to actively push forward.

 

By Nadine Maenza and Nury Turkel

Credit: Catherine Putz

The Diplomat (09.07.2020) – https://bit.ly/32h4Tg5 – For many years, Uzbekistan presented a bleak picture in a region notorious for poor human rights conditions. Under the country’s late authoritarian leader, Islam Karimov, the government relentlessly repressed all independent religious activity that it did not expressly sanction. In one particularly infamous incident documented in 2002, the bodies of two religious prisoners held at Jasliq Prison — also called the “House of Torture” — were returned to their families with evidence of torture indicating that at least one of them may have been boiled alive. A decade later, a popular imam who fled Uzbekistan and received asylum in Sweden barely survived an assassination attempt that many believed was orchestrated by the government.

Karimov’s death in 2016 brought to power his long-time prime minister, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, who has proven himself inclined to reform and committed to improving Uzbekistan’s international image. Among his administration’s efforts to implement reform on a number of fronts, its focus and engagement on religious freedom concerns have been a welcome, if slow, reversal of a long-standing official policy of persecution.

The government’s initial move to delist thousands of individuals from its blacklist of potential “religious extremists,” and its decision to invite the United Nations special rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief, Ahmed Shaheed, to visit the country in late 2017, were groundbreaking first steps in the right direction. The government’s adoption of a “road map” in response to Shaheed’s recommendations the following year was a promising sign of its commitment as well.

For 15 consecutive years, the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) recommended that the U.S. State Department designate Uzbekistan as a Country of Particular Concern (CPC) under the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 for its “systematic, ongoing, egregious violations of religious freedom.”

But, on April 28, USCIRF for the first time recommended Uzbekistan for the Special Watch List (SWL) in recognition of the progress made, and, crucially, in expectation of continued reform in the year ahead.

Although the State Department had opted to remove Uzbekistan from its list of most egregious religious freedom violators earlier, in late 2018, USCIRF did not recommend the State Department do so until this spring.

It is imperative that Uzbekistan continue on its chosen path of reform to provide and protect the rights of all its people to practice their religion or beliefs. Its expected adoption of a revised Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations would be a welcome next step in its efforts to provide all the conditions for true religious freedom.

Over the course of the last year, we have seen Uzbekistan take real, concrete action to substantially improve and increase the space for religious freedom throughout the country. When a USCIRF delegation visited Uzbekistan last year, many diverse religious faiths and communities shared that the situation had truly changed for the better.

USCIRF’s 2020 Annual Report highlighted the government’s directive to law enforcement authorities and police to cease raids on religious groups and the announced closure of Jasliq Prison as some of the most significant positive developments of 2019.

However, although notable progress has been made, much remains to be done.

Of particular concern are the reported thousands of peaceful Muslims whom Uzbekistan continues to imprison on vague or spurious charges of “religious extremism.” While there have been some prisoner releases, the government should fully review the cases of all individuals imprisoned under such charges as well as release, rehabilitate, and exonerate those held as political and religious prisoners.

Uzbekistan should also ensure that its approach and advancement of freedom of religion or belief is comprehensive and inclusive of all its religious communities, including Muslims. The government’s reluctance to extend fundamental rights to all Muslims, and particularly those who choose to exercise or publicly express their beliefs by growing a beard or wearing a hijab, is contrary to its commitment to international human rights standards. As Uzbekistan moves forward with plans to overhaul its religion law, it should minimize mandatory registration requirements as much as possible, and set aside inordinate and stifling bans on proselytism, missionary activity, and the private teaching of religion.N

Finally, Uzbekistan must remain vigilant to protect the gains it has made, continue to actively push forward reforms to its legal framework regarding religion — such as fulfilling its pledge to revise the Law on Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations — and avoid any backsliding.

Nadine Maenza is a Commissioner on the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, appointed by President Donald Trump.

Nury Turkel is a Commissioner on the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, appointed by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi.





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Uzbekistan: HRWF urges President Mirziyoyev to release 26 Muslim prisoners

HRWF has just published a 29-page report about Sunni Muslims in prison for their faith in five Asian countries[1]

 

HRWF (15.07.2020) – Human Rights Without Frontiers urges President Mirziyoyev to release 26 Muslim prisoners who are serving lengthy prison sentences. Most of them were tried under President Karimov after being accused of alleged separatism, extremism, planning to overthrow the government and/or belonging to a banned Islamist movement. However, they are not known to have committed acts of violence and there were serious concerns that under President Karimov these charges were fabricated.[2]

 

List of 26 Muslim prisoners: See their documented cases in HRWF Database of FoRB Prisoners[3]: https://hrwf.eu/prisoners-database/

AKHMEDOV, Mansurkhon
FAYZIYEV,  Davron Yuldashevich
INAGAMOV,  Khusnuddin Abdukhakimovich
KAMILOV,  Dilshod Khikmatullayevich
KASYMOV, Alisher
KHASANOV,  Sobirjon Sotvoldiyevich
KHUDAIBERDIYEV, Bakhtiyor
KODYROV, Muhammad
KOMOLIDDINOV, Davron
KURBONOV, Botyraly
MIRZAYEV,  Ravshan Mukhamadovich
MURTAZOYEV, Ubaydulla
RASHIDOV,  Abdurashid Abdulkhayevich
RASULOV, Akmaljon
RIZAYEV,  Khusnuddin Tokhtamurodovich
SADYKOV,  Bakhadyr Bakhtiyarovich
SADYKOV,  Ravshan Bakhtiyarovich
TURABAYEV, Rakhmonzhon
TURDIBOYEV, Jonibek
TURSUNOV, Bakhtiyor
TURSUNOV, Khayrullo
UMARBAYEV, Ravshanbek
URUNOV,  Afzaljon Azatovich
YUSUPOV, Latip Talipovich
YULDASHEV, Mirjamol
ZOKIROV, Shakhzodjon

Sunnis behind bars: some statistics

As of 1 June 2020, HRWF documented 26 cases of Sunni Muslims in its Prisoners’ Database.[4] 19 of these individuals were arrested and detained before 2017 and are serving prison sentences that range from five to sixteen years. Four Sunni Muslims were detained in 2019 and three have been imprisoned so far in 2020.

 

In 2019, there were 38 cases recorded in HRWF’s database. There were ten more cases in 2018. Between late August and early September 2018, the authorities arrested many bloggers criticising the lack of religious freedom in an attempt to stop public discussions on such issues. At least eight of them were jailed for two weeks.[5] Some Sunni imams were also prosecuted for criticising the state controlled Muftiate and the ban on the wearing of hijabs in schools.

 

Articles of the Penal Code

Prisoners are typically charged under these articles of the Uzbekistani Criminal Code:

 

Article 156, Part 2 which includes ‘deliberate acts intended to humiliate ethnic honour and dignity, insult the religious or atheistic feelings of individuals, carried out with the purpose of inciting hatred, intolerance, or divisions on a national, ethnic, racial, or religious basis, as well as the explicit or implicit limitation of rights or preferences on the basis of national, racial, or ethnic origin, or religious beliefs’.

 

Article 159 which is ‘attempts to change the Constitutional order’, including acts of violence. It is punishable by up to 10 years in prison.

 

Article 244-1, Part 1 which is ‘the production, storage, distribution or display of materials containing a threat to public security and public order’. Part 2 is the ‘dissemination of materials containing ideas of religious extremism, separatism, and fundamentalism, calls for pogroms or violent eviction, or aimed at creating panic among the population, as well as the use of religion for purposes of breach of civil concord, dissemination of calumnious and destabilising fabrications, and committing other acts aimed against the established rules of conduct in society and public order’. Part 3 (a) specifies when these acts are premeditated or by a group of people, Part 3 (b) specifies when they are committed by officials, and Part 3 (c) specifies when they have received ‘financial or other material aid from religious organisations, as well as foreign states, organisations, and citizens’.

 

Article 244-2, Part 1 which is the ‘creation, leadership or participation in religious extremist, separatist, fundamentalist or other banned organisations’.

 

Article 246, Part 1 which includes ‘smuggling, that is carriage through the customs border – without the knowledge of or with concealment from customs control – materials that propagandise religious extremism, separatism, and fundamentalism’. It is punishable by between 10 to 20 years in prison.[6]

 

Additionally, Sunnis may be charged under these articles of the Uzbekistani Code of Administrative Offences:

 

Article 240, Part 1 which includes the ‘carrying out of unauthorised religious activity, evasion by leaders of religious organisations of registration of the charter of the organisation, and the organisation and conduct of special children’s and youth meetings, as well as vocational, literature and other study groups not relating to worship’. Individuals found in violation of this article may be jailed for up to 15 days or required to pay fines that are 50 to 100 times the minimum monthly wage.

 

Article 241 includes ‘teaching religious beliefs without specialised religious education and without permission from the central organ of a [registered] religious organisation, as well as teaching religious beliefs privately’. Individuals found in violation of this article may be jailed for up to 15 days or required to pay fines that are 50 to 100 times the minimum monthly wage.[7]

 

International advocacy

On 22 February 2018, the Report of the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief on his mission to Uzbekistan was presented to the UN General Assembly. In this report, the Special Rapporteur, Ahmed Shaheed, shared findings from his mission in October 2017, which included:

 

  1. The number of detainees imprisoned on vague charges relating to ‘religious extremism’, ‘anti-constitutional’ activity or membership in an ‘illegal religious group’ — also known as ‘religious detainees’ — is unconfirmed. The estimate ranges between 5,000 and 15,000 individuals[8], while the official data is unknown. Thousands of Muslims have allegedly been imprisoned on accusations of belonging to terrorist, extremist or banned organizations or exercising the right to freedom of religion or belief. It is hard to know whether those detainees were indeed involved in violence or other crimes or whether they were only ‘guilty’ of taking their faith seriously.[9]

 

In February 2019, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for the US Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs Alice G. Wells visited Uzbekistan. She raised concerns about religious freedom issues and specifically cited the release of prisoners of conscience as a positive step the government could take.[10]

 

The US State Department removed Uzbekistan from its list of Countries of Particular Concern (CPC) and placed it on its Special Watch List (SWL) for the first time in December 2018. It did so again in November 2019. Before this, Uzbekistan was designated as a CPC due to egregious violations of religious freedom.

 

The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom’s (USCIRF) 2020 Annual Report recommended that the US State Department keep Uzbekistan on the Special Watch List.[11]

Footnotes:

[1] Those five countries are: China, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.

[2] Mushfig, Bayram, “UZBEKISTAN: Religious freedom survey September 2017,” Forum 18, September 11, 2019, accessed May 2020. http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2314.

[3] There is often much confusion around the concept of the freedom of religion or belief (FoRB) in respect to the identification of groups and persons who are victims of FoRB violations.

For HRWF, a FoRB prisoner is someone whose rights, protected by Article 18 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)[3] and Article 6 of the 1981 UN Declaration of the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, were violated by state institutions. Not more and not less.

For more details about the distinctions between FoRB prisoners from religious prisoners of conscience, FoRB defenders and human rights defenders, see HRWF’s latest report “In Prison for their Faith 2020”/ Foreword & Introduction (https://hrwf.eu/forb/forb-annual-reports/) published online in July 2020.

[4] Our Database is updated on a regular basis. For more details about imprisoned Sunni Muslims, see https://hrwf.eu/prisoners-database/.

[5] Mushfig, Bayram, “UZBEKISTAN: Jailings ‘to intimidate all who speaks about freedoms’,” Forum 18, September 20, 2018, accessed May 2020. http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2416.

[6] Mushfig, Bayram, “UZBEKISTAN: Religious freedom survey September 2017,” Forum 18, September 11 2019, accessed May 2020. http://www.forum18.org/archive.php?article_id=2314.

[7] Ibid.

[8] The statistics mentioned by the Special Rapporteur were not supported by any identifiable source and the government of Uzbekistan fiercely denied such figures in its comments sent to the Special Rapporteur. However, USCIRF 2020 Annual Report was quoted as saying ‘Estimates from international and local human rights organizations generally range from 1,500 to 5,000 prisoners. According to human rights activists in Uzbekistan, many of the remaining religious prisoners were sentenced in connection with real or fabricated membership in the Islamist organization Hizb ut-Tahrir, which is banned in Uzbekistan’. See United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, Annual Report, USCIRF-Recommended for countries of particular concern: Uzbekistan 2020, 2020. https://www.uscirf.gov/sites/default/files/Uzbekistan.pdf.

[9] Shaheed, Ahmed, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief on his mission to Uzbekistan, United Nations, 2018. https://digitallibrary.un.org/record/1481445?ln=en#record-files-collapse-header.

[10] ‘Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for South and Central Asian Affairs Alice Wells Travels to Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan,’ U.S. Department of State, February 24, 2019. https://www.state.gov/principal-deputy-assistant-secretary-for-south-and-central-asian-affairs-alice-wells-travels-to-kyrgyzstan-and-uzbekistan/.

[11] United States Commission on International Religious Freedom, Annual Report, USCIRF-Recommended for countries of particular concern: Uzbekistan 2020, 2020. https://www.uscirf.gov/sites/default/files/Uzbekistan.pdf.


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